Odisha (formerly known as Orissa) is a nation of India. Which is situated East Coast of India by the Bay of Bengal. According to areas, it’s the 8th largest state and the 11th largest by population. Its neighbors the state of West Bengal to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the south, Chhattisgarh to we stand the Bay of Bengal to the east.

The language of Odisha is Odia (formerly known as Oriya), which one of the classical languages of India.


Ancient Acheulian apparatuses dating to the Lower Paleolithic period have been found in different spots around there, inferring an early settlement by people. Kalinga has been referenced in old writings like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana, and Manatoid Sultana. The Sabra individuals of Odisha have likewise been referenced in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana refers to Kalinga as not yet being affected by Vedic practices, inferring it followed for the most part ancestral customs.

Hathigumpha on the Udayagiri Hills worked in c. 150 BCE

Shanti Stupa at Dhauli is the area where Kalinga War was battled in c. 260 BCE

Ashoka of the Mauryan tradition vanquished Kalinga in the grisly Kalinga War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his rule. As per his decrees, in that battle around 100,000 individuals were murdered, 150,000 were caught and more were influenced. The subsequent carnage and enduring of the conflict are said to have profoundly influenced Ashoka. He transformed into a radical and changed over to Buddhism.

By c. 150 BCE, ruler Kharavela, who was perhaps a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, vanquished a significant piece of the Indian sub-mainland. Kharavela was a Jain ruler. He likewise fabricated the cloister on the Udayagiri slope. In this manner, the locale was controlled by rulers, like Samudragupta and Shashanka. It was additionally a piece of Harsha’s realm.

The city of Brahmapur in Odisha is likewise known to have been the capital of the Kauravas during the end of long stretches of the fourth century CE. Nothing was heard from the Pauravas from about the third century CE since they were added by the Yaudheya Republic, who thusly submitted to the Mauryans. It was distinctly toward the finish of the fourth century CE, that they set up eminence at Brahmapur, after around 700 years


Odisha lies between the scopes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has a space of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of the complete space of India, and a coastline of 450 km. In the eastern piece of the state lies the beachfront plain. It reaches out from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the Rushikulya waterway in the south. The lake Chilika is essential for the seaside fields. The fields are wealthy in rich sediment stored by the six significant waterways streaming into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi, and Rushikulya. The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-perceived rice quality bank and examination establishment, is arranged on the banks of Mahanadi in Cuttack. The stretch among Puri and Bhadrak in Odisha sticks out a little into the ocean, making it defenseless against any cyclonic movement.

Satellite perspective on the Mahanadi waterway delta

3/4 of the state is canvassed in mountain ranges. Profound and expansive valleys have been made in them by waterways. These valleys have rich soil and are thickly populated. Odisha additionally has levels and moving uplands, which have a lower height than the levels. The most elevated point in the state is Deomali at 1,672 meters. The other high pinnacles are Sinkaram (1,620 m), Golikoda (1,617 m), and Yendrika (1,582 meters).